3 Worst Non-Surgical Solutions to (Periodontal) Gum Disease Explained


Periodontal disease or gum  disease is an infectious disease that is composed of viruses bacteria and we know  now today parasites that come and colonize the  pocket of the patient and slowly slowly start  the tissue destruction.

What is Periodontal (Gum) Disease

Periodontal disease begins in the “gingival sulcus,” a cuff of soft tissue around the necks of the teeth where they emerge through the gums. Healthy gingiva are pink in color and the sulcus depth ranges from zero to three millimeters – measured from the tip of the gingival margin to the base of the sulcus.

The attachment fibers connecting the gums to the teeth, and the teeth to the bone are intact. The gums are resilient, and neither bleed nor hurt when being probed. During meals, food debris accumulates in the sulcus.

When mixed with mouth bacteria, and proteins from saliva, plaque and less-obvious biofilm are formed. Both are harmful to teeth and periodontal structures. Left in place on the teeth, bacterial plaque and biofilm begin to mineralize, forming hardened deposits called “calculus” – which can only be removed with dental instruments.

In response to the increased bacteria adjacent to the soft gingiva, the body sends immune cells and healing cells to the area by way of the circulation. The increased blood flow to the gingiva produces red, enlarged and tender gum tissues – a reversible condition known as “gingivitis,” in which the periodontal attachment fibers remain intact.

Continuous exposure to acids and enzymes from plaque bacteria and the body’s immune response to them eventually causes the periodontal attachment to be lost – an irreversible condition known as “periodontitis.

” The sulcus depth increases to the point where the patient can no longer effectively remove plaque – leading to the destruction of tooth-supporting bone. Smoking impairs blood flow, and can significantly interfere with the patients’ ability to fight the bacterial infection.

Other factors may be involved. Generalized periodontitis affects all of the teeth. They may loosen, appear unnaturally long an unattractive, and may ultimately be lost. When multiple back teeth are lost, the front teeth may be unable to support closing forces of the jaw muscles.

They begin to tip and move. The cheeks begin to collapse inward where the back teeth are missing, and the lack of proper support for the jaw joints may cause them to ache, pop and click. Periodontal bacteria can enter the body’s circulatory system through leaky blood vessels.

Once inside, the bacteria can lead to blood clots, and inflamed vessels – which constrict in diameter, leading to strokes, heart disease, heart attacks, and poor circulation in the extremities.

Is Gum Disease Linked to Other Health Problems?

This tissue destruction  is conducted in two ways, first of all by the  immediate release of the byproducts of those   toxins that are created by the war that is  happening within the pocket between the immune   system and the bacteria that will induce  bone loss, but as well remotely by all the   immunological by-products that are relaxed into  the tissue, mainly interleukins and cytokines   that will affect the organs of the body remotely  such as the kidney, the liver, and the heart.

So it would be a big mistake to not understand  these two compartments and, dissociate them and   not treat our patients as a unit between  the oral cavity and, the systemic body   and make sure that we have a good  understanding of this symbiotic   relationship that exists between the oral  health, oral disease and the rest of the body.

Treatments and Therapies

We are taking our patients through a non-surgical  protocol a different approach to treat your gum   disease. Many of our patients come in with  concerns of bleeding gums, ulcerations,   fever even cold-like symptoms,  and they’re not sure of the cause.

So we take this opportunity to educate  our patients that gum disease is not only   a bacterial concern there are viruses  and parasites that also play a role. At the center we use a  microscope for the diagnosis   and the prognosis of the patient’s treatment,  meaning that every time that the patient comes   into their visits, we’re taking a swap culture of  those parasites viruses, and bacteria that we put   under the microscope and during each visit we’re  going to evaluate the changes that will occur.

By using the microscope we apply a medical  approach to a dental problem, in medicine   a lot of times what they do they take a  culture, they then treat the patient topically,   and systemically if necessary, and finally,  they talk about ways of reinfection or possible lifestyle choices.

Now in dentistry, we get to do  the same our priority is to control inflammation   and infection at a microscopic level, this way we  cure the gum disease from the most crucial point. Results become trackable and educational for  patients, everything that I get to see on the   microscope patients too get to see as well.

Depending on what we find on the microscope,  we’ll adjust medication delivery or any home care  protocols to improve your overall gum health. With   a non-surgical therapy helping our patients  to regain responsibility in their home care   and help their body to fix the disease and  we build the bone that they are deprived of.

Risk Factors

With gingivitis, gingiva refers to the gums, and -itis refers to inflammation, so gingivitis is inflammation of the gums. With periodontitis, peri- means around, and odon-, refers to the tooth, so it’s inflammation and destruction of the supporting structures around the teeth.

Broadly speaking, the two are on a spectrum starting with simple gingivitis on one end, and if the process doesn’t get treated, it can develop into more severe disease – periodontitis, which is on the other end of the spectrum.

Let’s start by building a model of a tooth and its surrounding structures. In the mouth, the bone beneath the bottom row of teeth is the mandible, and the bone above the top row of teeth is the maxilla.

Both bones have an alveolus, or socket, for each tooth. The socket is lined on the inside by a periodontal ligament. Protecting the alveolus on the outside, is a layer of soft, supportive tissue called the gingiva, or gums, that sits on top of the bone.

The tooth itself can be roughly divided into two parts. The first part is the root, and it sits within the alveolus. The root is covered by a bonelike substance called cementum, and that’s what the periodontal ligament’s fibers attach to.

Next, there’s a short zone called the neck, which is the transition between the root and the crown. The crown is the visible part of the tooth that protrudes from the gingiva, and it’s covered in enamel.

Enamel has such a high mineral content that it’s the hardest substance in the human body. The portion of gingiva that sticks up and is not anchored to the tooth is sometimes called the free gingiva, and the space between the free gingiva and the crown is called the gingival crevice or gingival sulcus.

A watery substance called gingival crevicular fluid flows into this space in small amounts. Gingival crevicular fluid contains various immune proteins and cells like neutrophils, complement proteins, and antibodies.

Within the mouth there are a number of bacterial organisms. In a healthy mouth, there is a balance of commensal bacteria that compete with each other, and they are all kept in check by immune factors in the mouth.

Gingivitis and periodontitis represent a state of imbalance or dysbiosis. This is when there’s a relative increase in pathogenic bacteria either because of a lack of competition with other commensal bacteria or because of an ineffective immune response in the mouth.

The pathogenic bacteria form dental plaque which is a sticky collection of bacteria, proteins from saliva, and dead cells from the lining of the mouth. Individual bacteria multiply and form many small microcolonies that coalesce, creating a layer of dental plaque – which is a type of biofilm.

Compared to a microcolony, the bacteria in a biofilm communicate with each other via chemical signaling and together they create a complex system where some bacteria work on tunneling between the microcolonies and to the surface in order to bring in a steady supply of food.

As an analogy, if bacteria were ants, then a microcolony would be a tiny group of ants, each doing it’s own thing, whereas a biofilm would be an ant farm with complex tunnels and rooms, and each ant carrying out a specialized task.

Some tooth surfaces like the portion of the tooth just outside the gingiva are hard to brush dental plaque away from. If dental plaque above the gingiva keeps building, the bacteria within that biofilm can invade beneath the gingiva where it becomes very difficult to reach with brushing.

Eventually, it can form a hard mass, called a dental calculus. Dental calculus creates a nice space for bacterial plaque formation, because it’s hard to remove, and from there bacteria can enter the gingival sulcus and cause gingival inflammation, or gingivitis.

Damaged gingival cells release inflammatory signals that recruit neutrophils to the area, and those neutrophils can release harmful chemicals that kill bacteria, as well as damage the nearby tissue. Fortunately, simple gingivitis is a reversible condition, and the damaged tissue can heal over time as long as the infection is stopped and treated.

In periodontitis, the process of dysbiosis is often more extreme – with even more disease-causing bacteria flourishing in the mouth. One classic hypothesis suggests that the first step in periodontitis is the presence of the so-called orange-complex of bacteria, which includes gram-negative anaerobic bacteria like Fusobacterium nucleatum and Prevotella intermedia.

Once these orange-complex bacteria are established, the next step is the presence of the so-called red-complex of bacteria, which includes Tannerella forsythia, Treponema denticola and, its most notorious member, Porphyromonas gingivalis or P. gingivalis for short.

Another line of thinking suggests that rather than these red-complex bacteria being the specific culprits, it’s the overall change in the bacterial community that these bacteria trigger that tips the scale toward periodontitis.

Either way, the pathogenic bacteria within the subgingival dental plaque create a periodontal pocket and damage gingival cells in the process. Local mast cells and nerves release chemicals like histamine and substance P which cause dilation of local blood vessels, resulting in swelling of the gingiva.

Damaged gingival cells release additional cytokines like interleukin-1, which brings more immune cells to the area, like neutrophils and macrophages. The body’s immune response causes even more damage to the gingiva and periodontal ligament, ultimately loosening the tooth.

That one notorious bacterium P. gingivalis, is also known for impairing the immune cells from effectively killing bacteria. This helps other pathogenic bacteria to overgrow as well – kind of like a thief that destroys the police station and allows other thieves to flourish in a city.

The immune response also delivers more blood flow to the damaged tissue, and that provides nutrients for the bacteria. Together, the bacteria and immune response end up in a positive-feedback loop where the expanding infection causes an increased immune response, which doesn’t destroy the bacteria but provides the bacteria with more fuel to grow.

The immune response also activate osteoclasts in the bone, which start to dissolve the bone supporting the tooth, loosening it even more. Symptoms of gingivitis typically include redness, swelling, and bleeding – especially after brushing or flossing.

Some people though experience no symptoms, especially in the early stages of infection. Severe disease that progresses to periodontitis can result in tooth loss. Diagnosis of gingivitis and periodontitis are usually made by looking for swollen or bleeding gums, probing of each gingival sulcus to determine how deep it is, and X-rays to evaluate the bone level.

With inflammation and destruction, the sulcus becomes deeper as the periodontal pocket expands. Treatment depends on how severe the infection is. Daily brushing and flossing, and use of antimicrobial agents like mouthwashes, can help prevent the formation of dental plaque, but in severe cases antibiotic and surgery might be needed.

All right, as a quick recap… Gingivitis is caused by infection and inflammation of the gingiva that can grow to involve the tooth supporting structures, which is called periodontitis. When dental plaque builds up near the gumline, it can allow bacteria to invade toward the root of the tooth.

Diagnosis is done via visual inspection, X-rays, and probing the gums, and treatment of severe cases may include removal of the infected tissue, antibiotics, and surgery.

Source : Youtube

You May Also Like

- - - - -